The Republic of Armenian (RA), short – Armenia. The Republic of Armenia is a sovereign, democratic, social and legal state. State authority performs in accordance with the Constitution and laws based on separation of legislative, executive and judicial powers.
21.09.1991 – The day of referendum for independence of Armenia. Based on the results of referendum (99% voted for independence) the Parliament of the Republic declared the independence of the Republic of Armenia. The Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR adopted “Declaration on independence” earlier on 23 August.
Law “On the state Flag of the Republic of Armenia” was adopted on August 24, 1990, by the Supreme Soviet. After the Republic of Armenia Constitution amendments dated November 27, 2005, a new law “On the Flag of the Republic of Armenia” was adopted on June 15, 2006. The Flag is one of the symbols of the Republic of Armenia. The Republic of Armenia flag is three-coloured – red, blue and orange – with equal horizontal layers. Colour red represents the Armenian highland, eternal struggle for exciting, for Christian beliefs, for independence and freedom of Armenia. Colour blue represents the will of living under a peaceful sky. Colour orange is a symbol of creativity and diligence. The width and length is in the ratio of 1:2.
The law “On the State Coat of Arms of the Republic of Armenia” was adopted on April 19, 1992, by the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Armenia. It is a rendition of the Coat of Arms of the First Armenian Republic (1918-1920) designed by member of the Russian Academy of Fine Arts, Architect Alexander Tamanyan and artist Hakob Kojoyan. The coat of arms of the Republic of Armenia is one of the state symbols of the Republic of Armenia. After the RA Constitution amendments dated November 27, 2005, a new Law “On the Coat of Arms of the Republic of Armenia”. The coat of arms of the Republic of Armenia has a shield at its center. On the shield are depicted Ararat Mount together with Noah’s Ark and the coats of arms of the four kingdoms of historical Armenia; left from above the Bagratuni, right from above the Arshakuni, left from bottom the Artashisyan, right from bottom the Rubinyans. The shield is held by an eagle (on the left) and a lion (on the right,) and above the shield there are depicted a sword, a branch, bundle of wheat, a chain and a ribbon. The main colour of the coat of arms of the Republic of Armenia is golden. The colour of the kingdoms of the historical Armenia left from above is red, right from above is blue, left from bottom is blue, right from bottom is red and the mount, depicted at the center of the shield is orange.
The Anthem of the Republic of Armenia was adopted on July 1, 1991, by the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Armenia. It is based on the Anthem of the First Armenian Republic (1918-1920), but with different lyrics. The author of the lyrics is poet Mikael Nalbandyan (1829-1866).
The President of the Republic is the head of the state. The President of the Republic follows maintenance of the Constitution, ensures the normal activity of the legislative, executive and judicial powers. The President of the Republic serves as the guarantor of independence, territorial integrity and security of the Republic. The President is elected by the citizens of the Republic of Armenia for a five-year term.
The executive power is implemented by the Government of the Republic of Armenia. The Government comprises of the Prime Minister and the Ministers. The President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister of the Republic based on the distribution of the parliamentary seats of the National Assembly and consultations with parliamentary factions. The President appoints the person, who enjoys the trust of the deputies’ majority, and if it is not possible, then the person, who enjoys the trust of more number of deputies. President of the Republic of Armenia appoints and removes the members of the Government nominated by the Prime Minister.
The highest legislative body is the unicameral National Assembly. The National Assembly l consists of one hundred and thirty-one deputies . The National Assembly is elected through popular vote for a five-year term.
In the Republic of Armenia justice is administered only by Courts in accordance with the Constitution and laws. In the Republic of Armenia, the courts of general competence are: courts of the first instance, review courts and the Court of Appeals. Economic, military and other courts operate in the Republic of Armenia.
South-East: Nagorno Karabagh Republic,
South-west: Nakhchivan (Azerbaijan),
Average height is 1,800 m above sea level.
The highest peak is Mount Aragats (4,090 m).
The territory of Armenia has always been rich in minerals. Gold, copper, iron, arsenic, antimony, different precious, semiprecious and non precious stones have been mined since historical times, witness of which are mineral and metal equipment and tools of working up, metallurgical slag, traces of old mines discovered around exploiting mines (Sotq and Meghradzor – gold, Kapan and Alaverdi – copper, Hrazdan – iron etc). There are some old metallurgical centers of the Bronze Age. Gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, molybdenum and iron mines are widely known. They are evidence of riches of the bosom of Armenia. Copper- molybdenum mines of Armenia are rich in rare grounds and elements: bismuth, tellur, selenium, gallium, indium, thallium, rhenium, germanium etc. Armenia has huge reserves of non metallic minerals…
There are 3 big mountain masses in Armenia: plicate ridges, volcanic mountains and intermountain hollows. Ridges cover about 47% of the whole territory. They are located in the north-east (Bazum, Pambak middle-high ridges included in the Lesser Caucasus), and in the south-west (high ridge of Zangezur. Meghri, Barghushat, Vayots Dzor ridges begin from Zangezur ridge). Volcanic mountains are on 1000-4095 meters above sea-level. They occupy more than…
Armenia has a dry subtropical climate, which varies in lower and higher mountainous areas. The climate is dry and continental (precipitation: 300 mm) in south and south-western vales. Summers are very hot. The climate changes to temperate continental in areas on 1500 meters above sea-level. The annual precipitation amount is 500-800 mm, summers are hot and winters are cold. The highest peaks of Armenia are covered with snow throughout the whole year. Abundant sun energy is typical for Armenia (duration of sunshine is around 2000-28000 hours, the longest one is in July in Ararat plain and Sevan basin). Another feature of the climate is a huge changeability of the weather during the day. As a result of mountainous relief, vertical climate zone is well distinguished.
Being a typical mountainous country, the Republic of Armenia has a disproportionate hydrographic system. Rivers are tributaries of Kur and Araks rivers – the biggest ones in the South Caucasus. There are 9479 big and small rivers with length of 23 thousand km in the Republic of Armenia. 379 rivers are 100 km long. The 6 is more than 100 km long (Akhuryan, Debet, Vorotan, Hrazdan, Aghstev, Arpa). The rivers start mainly from high mountains, that is why they have high fall and rapid course. Rivers are fed mainly from thawed water, groundwater and rainwater. They overflow in spring, sometimes in autumn. The minimum level is in July-August and in winter. Rivers of Armenia are characterized by the presence of rapids and waterfalls, unexpected fluctuation and high speed, that is why they don’t freeze. Thermoelectric power stations are built on all the rivers and almost all of them are used for irrigational purposes. That is the main reason rivers are not useful for sports. A number of reservoirs are being used. The biggest of them…
The lands of Armenia are only 2,974,259 ha. It is in one of the smallest countries by territory factor per capita (o.4 ha). Thanks to a great variety of flora, relief and climate conditions there are 14 genealogical types of soil and 27 subtypes. 7 types of 14 are zoned. Predominating ones are mountain black earths, brown and semidesert grey soils (42.5% of the whole territory). The rest 7 are interzonal (6% of the whole territory). Forest soils occupy 697 thousand ha (22.4% of the whole territory), woodlands occupy 11.7% of the whole territory. There are almost all known types of the soil in Armenia except of podzol and lateritic. There are even loose sands (village of Gorovan in Ararat Province, 200 ha). In highlands…
Despite of relatively small territory the Republic of Armenia is notable for its plant co-existences and diversity of flora. Armenia is on the border of Eurasian and Iranian – Turanian floral regions, which are mutually contradictory. Thanks to the variety of natural and historical conditions Armenian flora has a rich and diverse species structure (around 3500 higher plants). 115 of all plants found in Armenia are endemic…
The territory of the Republic of Armenia is at a crossroads of Asia Minor, Iranian and Pontus- Caucasus parts of the Mediterranean vital geographical region. Thus, this parts have a great effect on the fauna of the Republic of Armenia. There are more than 17,000 types of invertebrates (most of them are endemic), 523 types of vertebrates, 76 types of mammals, 349 types of birds (100 of them are wintering), 44 types of reptiles (20 of them are snakes), 24 types of fish. There is a great number of reptiles…
Has a population of 3277.0 thousand (as of July 1, 2012). Ethnic structure: 96% are Armenians. 133th in the World. 2009 census results: 3,238,900. Population density is 100 per square kilometer (98th in the World). National characteristic features of Armenians are first of all diligence, enthusiasm and generosity. Armenians like to study. They are warm-blooded, temperamental, but kind, extremely hospitable at the same time. They like music and lambent humour. Armenians are strongly connected to their families.
National minorities are Russians, Yazidis, Kurds, Assyrians, Greeks, Ukrainians, Jews etc.
More than 10 million Armenians live in Armenian communes (Armenian Diaspora) in number of countries, as well as in Armenia and Artsakh. The Armenian Diaspora has been developed throughout centuries, as a result of loss of the independence, being under foreign yoke, massacres and Armenian Genocide of 1915. Today there are Armenian colonies in more than 100 countries. The largest in number are ones in the Russian Federation, the US, France, Georgia, Syria, Lebanon, Argentina, Canada, the Islamic Republic of Iran etc. The main activity of Diaspora Armenians is maintaining Armenian traditions: they establish schools, churches, cultural centers, constructions of national importance. Armenia and Diaspora has the same historic and cultural roots. They are powerful thanks to each other. The power of the Armenian people is in its unity. The variety of culture, language, religion, politics and ideology of the Diaspora is the essential potential of the Armenian people.
Dram (AMD), has been used since 1993. Dram is subdivided into 100 “Luma”. However, luma isn’t used nowadays. Banknotes of 1000; 5000; 10,000; 50,000; 100,000 drams and coins of 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 drams are currently in circulation. 1USD=410 AMD.
Credit cards are widely in use in supermarkets, hotels, boutiques.
Trade is implemented exceptionally in national currency of the Republic of Armenia – Armenian drams on the whole territory of the Republic of Armenia.
There are no any difficulties of currency exchange. Banks work from 10:00 until 17:00. However, in order to avoid unnecessary queues and to not waste a time it is convenient to make an exchange in twenty-four-hour currency exchange spots in supermarkets.
Food: economy – USD 2-5, middle – USD 2-20, expensive – USD 20 and more.
Taxi – USD 0.3 per km.
Museums –USD 3-5 per ticket.
Internet – USD 0.6 per hour
Generally tips make up 5-10% of the whole bill. Tips are already included in bills in some establishments, restaurants, cafes of Yerevan. However, in some places it is common to leave tips. They leave 500-1000 drams to hotel porters, 500 drams to taxi drivers. You can leave tips to waiters and doormen beforehand.
All informational and roads boards are in Armenian and English. Traffic is right-sided. Traffic regulations correspond to ones in Europe. Menus of almost all restaurants and cafes are written in 3 languages: Armenian, Russian and English. Inhabitants speak Russian, English, rarely French. Price lists in shops are in Armenian.
You can get number of foreign newspapers and magazines in hotels, as well as kiosks. English newspaper “Noyyan Tapan” is published in Yerevan. Some of foreign TV channels are broadcasted: CNN, EuroNews, BBC, ОРТ, РТР etc.
Newspapers Hayastani Hanrapetutyun, Aravot, Golos Armenii, Delovoy express, El Style magazine, Economica, Noyyan Tapan etc.
GPS/GPRS system operates throughout the whole territory of the Republic of Armenia. To use the system it is necessary to apply to local mobile operators or to have your own system. Clarify whether that service is available in the Republic of Armenia from your operator, before traveling.
Wireless and hard-wire internet are available in all the provinces of Armenia. There are internet-cafes in large cities. Internet TLD: .am
“HayPost” CJSC is the official national postal operator of the Republic of Armenia which provides postal, payment and retail services. HayPost currently operates through 900 of its postal offices across Armenia, from urban to the most remote rural regions.
The Mobile connection throughout the whole territory of Armenia is provided by 3 telecommunication operators:
“Armentel” mobile network – 91, 99
“VivaCell – MTS” mobile network – 77,93,94,98
“Orange-Armenia” mobile network – 55
“Karabakh Telecome” mobile network – 97
Dial +374 to call to Armenia.
ISO Code – ARM
Bar code – 485
December 31 – January 6 – New Year and Christmas holidays: December 31, January 1 and 2 – New Year, January 3, 4 and 5 – holidays before Christmas, January 6 – Christmas and Epiphany (nonworking days)
January 7 – Memorial Day of the deceased (nonworking day)
January 28 – Army Day (nonworking day)
February 21 – Mother Tongue Day
February 28 – Commemoration day of victims of violence held in Azerbaijan SSR and of protection of the rights of banished Armenian people.
March 8 – Women’s Day (nonworking day)
April 1 – Fools’ and humour Day
April 7 – Maternity and Beauty Day
April 24 – Genocide Victims’ Commemoration Day (nonworking day)
May 1 – Labour Day (nonworking day)
May 8 – Land Defender’s Day
May 9 – Victory and Peace Day (nonworking day)
May 15 – Family Day
May 28 – The Republic Day (nonworking day)
June 1 – Children’s rights protection day
June 14 – Victims of political repression Commemoration Day
July 5 – Constitution Day (nonworking day)
September 1 – Knowledge Day
September 21 – Independence Day
October 5 – Teacher’s Day
2nd Saturday of October – Holy Translator’s Day
November 10 – Local self-government Day
December 7 – Earthquake Victims’ Commemoration Day
8 weeks before Easter on Thursday – St Vardanants Holiday – the day of mercy and national homage
64 days after Easter on Sunday – Holy Etchmiadzin Holiday
From: Moscow – 1820, St. Petersburg – 2470, Riga – 2210, Helsinki – 2860, Stockholm – 3120, Warsaw – 2450, Berlin – 2990, Hamburg – 3380, London – 4030, Dublin – 4550, Paris – 3835, Bern – 3315, Vienna – 3315, Sofia – 1885, Prague – 2795, Belgrade – 2210, Rome – 2810, Athens – 1850, Madrid – 3705, Lisbon – 4745, Damascus – 1040, Bagdad – 845, Tehran – 910, Beirut – 1105, Deli – 3315, Cairo – 1625, Beijing – 6240, Tokyo – 8450, Vladivostok – 7345, Singapore – 7430, Jakarta – 8190, Canberra – 12870, Wellington – 14690, Antananarivo – 6630, Reykjavik – 10270, Ottawa – 10270, San Francisco – 14560, Los Angeles – 14430, Washington – 10465, Mexico City – 13520, Rio de Janeiro – 10725, Buenos Aires – 12545, La Pas – 12258
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